Norwegian Culture: 5 Customs You Need to Know


Norway, a land of breathtaking fjords, mesmerizing northern lights, and rich cultural heritage, is renowned for its unique customs and traditions. These practices have been shaped by the country’s geography, history, and deeply ingrained societal values. Whether you’re learning Norwegian, planning a visit to this Scandinavian gem, or simply interested in Nordic culture, understanding these customs will not only enrich your experience but also help you navigate social situations with ease and respect.

For those interested in delving deeper into Norwegian language and culture, the NLS Norwegian Language School offers comprehensive group Norwegian classes. You can find more information and register at These classes can provide valuable insights into the customs we’ll explore in this article.

In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore five essential Norwegian customs that every learner, visitor, or enthusiast should be aware of. These customs reflect the core values of Norwegian society and offer profound insights into the Norwegian way of life. From the community-oriented concept of “dugnad” to the cozy art of “kos,” each custom provides a unique window into the heart of Norwegian culture.

1. Dugnad: The Spirit of Community Cooperation

What is Dugnad?

At the heart of Norwegian society lies the concept of “dugnad” (pronounced “doog-nahd”), a custom that embodies the collective spirit of voluntary work for the common good. This tradition dates back centuries and continues to play a significant role in modern Norwegian life.

Dugnad refers to a collective voluntary effort where members of a community come together to accomplish a task or project. It can range from cleaning up neighborhoods, maintaining communal areas, or organizing local events. The key aspect of dugnad is that it’s unpaid work, done out of a sense of duty and community spirit.

The Historical Roots of Dugnad

The concept of dugnad has its roots in agrarian Norwegian society. In the past, when communities were more isolated and resources were scarce, people had to rely on each other for survival. Farmers would come together to help with harvests, build barns, or repair homes damaged by harsh weather. This spirit of cooperation was essential for the community’s survival and prosperity.

During the Viking Age, dugnad played a crucial role in shipbuilding and preparing for long voyages. The entire community would contribute to these efforts, understanding that their collective success depended on it. This historical context helps explain why the concept remains so deeply ingrained in Norwegian culture today.

Modern Dugnad Practices

In contemporary Norway, dugnad has evolved but remains an integral part of society. Some common modern dugnad activities include:

  1. Spring cleaning in residential areas: Neighbors come together to rake leaves, plant flowers, and tidy up common spaces.
  2. Maintaining sports facilities and playgrounds: Local sports clubs often organize dugnads to prepare fields for the season or repair equipment.
  3. Organizing school and kindergarten events: Parents and teachers collaborate to plan fairs, performances, or fundraisers.
  4. Fundraising for local clubs and organizations: Members might sell lottery tickets or organize events to support their group’s activities.
  5. Environmental clean-up initiatives: Communities often organize beach or forest clean-ups to protect local ecosystems.
  6. Renovation of community buildings: Historical societies or local groups might come together to restore or maintain important structures.
  7. Snow removal in winter: In snowy regions, neighbors often help each other clear driveways and sidewalks.

The Social Significance of Dugnad

Participating in dugnad is seen as a civic duty in Norway. It’s a way to contribute to the community, meet neighbors, and foster a sense of belonging. For newcomers to Norway, participating in dugnad can be an excellent way to integrate into the local community and build social connections.

Dugnad also serves as a great equalizer in Norwegian society. During a dugnad, social hierarchies are temporarily suspended. CEOs might work alongside janitors, and professors alongside students. This reinforces the egalitarian values that are central to Norwegian culture.

Dugnad in Language and Culture

The importance of dugnad in Norwegian culture is reflected in the language. In 2004, “dugnad” was voted Norway’s national word, highlighting its cultural significance. Phrases like “dugnadssånd” (dugnad spirit) are commonly used to praise community efforts and encourage participation.

The concept has even spread to the digital realm, with online dugnads organized for various causes. During the COVID-19 pandemic, for instance, digital dugnads were organized to support local businesses and vulnerable community members.

Challenges and Future of Dugnad

While dugnad remains a strong tradition, it faces some challenges in modern society. Busier lifestyles and changing social structures can make it harder to organize and participate in dugnads. Some argue that the voluntary nature of dugnad is sometimes exploited, with organizations relying too heavily on unpaid labor.

Despite these challenges, the spirit of dugnad continues to adapt and find new expressions in Norwegian society. It remains a powerful force for community building and collective action, embodying the Norwegian values of cooperation and shared responsibility.

2. Friluftsliv: The Norwegian Love for Outdoor Life

Understanding Friluftsliv

“Friluftsliv” (pronounced “free-loofts-leev”) is a compound word that literally translates to “free air life.” This concept goes beyond mere outdoor activities; it’s a philosophical approach to nature and outdoor living deeply ingrained in Norwegian culture.

Friluftsliv embodies the idea that time spent in nature is not just leisure, but an essential part of a harmonious and healthy life. It’s about immersing oneself in nature, learning from it, and developing a deep, respectful relationship with the natural world.

The Origins of Friluftsliv

The term “friluftsliv” was popularized by the famous Norwegian playwright and poet Henrik Ibsen in the 1850s. It appeared in his poem “On the Heights,” where he used it to describe the value of spending time in nature for spiritual and physical wellbeing.

However, the concept itself predates Ibsen. The Norwegian relationship with nature has been shaped by centuries of living in a country with dramatic landscapes, from deep fjords to towering mountains. The harsh climate and rugged terrain necessitated a close relationship with nature for survival, which over time evolved into a philosophy of life.

Key Aspects of Friluftsliv

  1. Simplicity: Friluftsliv emphasizes simple outdoor experiences, often without the need for expensive equipment or extreme activities. It’s about finding joy in basic activities like walking in the forest or sitting by a lake.
  2. Respect for Nature: It promotes a deep respect for the natural environment and encourages sustainable practices. The goal is to enjoy nature without damaging it.
  3. Year-round Engagement: Norwegians embrace outdoor life in all seasons, adapting their activities to the changing weather. The famous Norwegian saying “There’s no such thing as bad weather, only bad clothing” (Det finnes ikke dårlig vær, bare dårlige klær) encapsulates this attitude.
  4. Mental and Physical Well-being: Friluftsliv is seen as essential for both physical health and mental balance. It’s considered a form of therapy, a way to destress and reconnect with oneself.
  5. Education and Personal Growth: Time in nature is viewed as an opportunity for learning and personal development. Many Norwegians believe that nature is the best teacher for important life lessons.
  6. Cultural Identity: Practicing friluftsliv is seen as an important part of Norwegian cultural identity. It’s a way of connecting with the country’s history and traditions.

Popular Friluftsliv Activities

  • Hiking and mountain trekking: Norway’s extensive network of hiking trails and mountain cabins facilitates multiday treks through stunning landscapes.
  • Cross-country skiing: A beloved winter activity that allows Norwegians to explore snow-covered forests and fields.
  • Berry and mushroom picking: Foraging in the woods is a popular autumn activity, combining outdoor time with the satisfaction of gathering food.
  • Fishing and hunting: These traditional activities are seen as ways of connecting with nature and understanding ecosystems.
  • Camping and outdoor cooking: Spending nights in nature and cooking over a campfire are considered essential friluftsliv experiences.
  • Kayaking and canoeing: With its long coastline and numerous lakes, Norway offers ample opportunities for water-based friluftsliv.
  • Ice skating: Frozen lakes in winter become natural ice rinks for recreation and transportation.
  • Snowshoeing: This allows for winter exploration of areas that might be inaccessible on skis.

Friluftsliv in Norwegian Society

The concept of friluftsliv is deeply embedded in Norwegian society. It influences everything from urban planning (ensuring green spaces in cities) to education (outdoor kindergartens and schools) and even workplace policies (many companies encourage outdoor breaks and activities).

In education, friluftsliv plays a significant role. Many Norwegian schools have regular outdoor days where classes are held in nature. There are even friluftsliv-focused high schools and university programs.

The Norwegian tourism industry also heavily promotes friluftsliv experiences, encouraging visitors to engage with nature in the Norwegian way.

The Right to Roam: Allemannsretten

Central to the practice of friluftsliv is “allemannsretten” or the right to roam. This legal right, codified in the Outdoor Recreation Act of 1957, allows everyone in Norway to access and enjoy nature freely, even on privately owned land, as long as they do so responsibly and leave no trace.

Allemannsretten permits activities such as:

  • Walking, skiing, and cycling on uncultivated land
  • Camping for up to two nights in one spot (at least 150 meters from the nearest house)
  • Picking wild berries, mushrooms, and flowers
  • Swimming and boating in lakes and seas
  • Fishing in saltwater (freshwater fishing usually requires a permit)

This right comes with responsibilities, including respecting nature, avoiding damage to the environment, and being considerate of landowners and other users.

Challenges and Future of Friluftsliv

While friluftsliv remains a core part of Norwegian culture, it faces some modern challenges. Urbanization can make it harder for people to access nature regularly. There’s also concern about the environmental impact of increased outdoor recreation, particularly in popular tourist areas.

Climate change poses another challenge, affecting traditional winter activities and changing the Norwegian landscape. However, this has also led to increased awareness about environmental issues and efforts to practice sustainable friluftsliv.

Despite these challenges, friluftsliv continues to be a vital part of Norwegian life, constantly adapting to new circumstances while maintaining its core philosophy of connecting with nature.

3. Kos: The Art of Coziness and Comfort

Defining Kos

“Kos” (pronounced “koosh”) is a Norwegian concept similar to the Danish “hygge,” but with its own unique characteristics. It embodies the idea of creating a warm, cozy atmosphere and enjoying life’s simple pleasures. Kos is more than just a word; it’s a state of being, a feeling of warmth, contentment, and well-being.

While often translated as “coziness,” kos encompasses a broader range of experiences and emotions. It can be used as both a noun (“kos”) and a verb (“å kose seg,” meaning to have a good time or enjoy oneself).

Elements of Kos

  1. Physical Comfort: Soft lighting, warm blankets, comfortable clothing, and a crackling fireplace are all elements that contribute to kos. The idea is to create a physically comfortable environment that promotes relaxation and well-being.
  2. Social Connection: While kos can be enjoyed alone, it often involves spending quality time with friends and family. Intimate gatherings, good conversations, and shared experiences are key aspects of social kos.
  3. Food and Drink: Enjoying comforting foods and beverages is an important part of kos. This might include hot chocolate, coffee, traditional Norwegian baked goods like cinnamon buns (kanelboller), or hearty stews on cold days.
  4. Atmosphere: Creating a peaceful, relaxing environment is crucial for kos. This might involve lighting candles, playing soft music, or simply enjoying the quiet of a snowy evening.
  5. Mindfulness: Being present in the moment and appreciating small joys is a fundamental aspect of kos. It’s about slowing down and savoring life’s simple pleasures.
  6. Nature Connection: Even when indoors, maintaining a connection to nature can enhance kos. This might involve having plants in the home, watching snowfall through a window, or listening to the sound of rain.
  7. Seasonal Adaptation: Kos takes different forms throughout the year. In winter, it might involve cozy indoor activities, while summer kos could mean enjoying a sunset picnic by the fjord.

Kos in Different Settings

  • Home Kos: Creating a cozy home environment is perhaps the most common form of kos, especially during long winter months. This might involve curling up with a good book, watching a favorite film, or enjoying a home-cooked meal with loved ones.
  • Outdoor Kos: Norwegians also find ways to make outdoor experiences koselig (cozy). This could mean having a bonfire on the beach, going for a sunset ski, or enjoying a picnic in the forest.
  • Social Kos: Gathering with friends for intimate, relaxed social interactions is a key aspect of kos. This could be a small dinner party, a game night, or simply chatting over coffee and cake.
  • Holiday Kos: Special traditions and atmospheres during festive seasons, particularly Christmas (jul), are important expressions of kos. This involves decorations, special foods, and time-honored rituals.
  • Workplace Kos: Even in professional settings, Norwegians find ways to incorporate kos. This might mean having a cozy break room, celebrating colleagues’ birthdays, or having informal team gatherings.

The Importance of Kos in Norwegian Culture

Kos is more than just a concept; it’s a way of life in Norway. It helps people cope with long, dark winters and fosters a sense of well-being and contentment. The pursuit of kos influences home design, social gatherings, and even workplace environments in Norway.

In Norwegian homes, you’ll often find design elements that contribute to kos: warm lighting, comfortable furnishings, and natural materials. Many Norwegians prioritize creating a koselig atmosphere in their living spaces.

The concept of kos also influences social norms. Gatherings tend to be intimate and relaxed rather than large and formal. There’s an emphasis on creating a warm, inclusive atmosphere where everyone feels comfortable.

Kos and Mental Health

The emphasis on kos in Norwegian culture contributes to the country’s high rankings in global happiness indices. By prioritizing comfort, connection, and simple pleasures, Norwegians cultivate a sense of well-being that helps combat stress and promotes mental health.

Kos encourages mindfulness and appreciation of the present moment, which are known to have positive effects on mental health. It also promotes social connection, which is crucial for emotional well-being.

During the long, dark winter months, kos serves as a coping mechanism, helping to ward off seasonal affective disorder and providing warmth and comfort in the face of harsh weather.

Challenges and Criticisms of Kos

While generally viewed positively, the concept of kos is not without its criticisms. Some argue that the pursuit of kos can lead to insularity or excessive focus on comfort at the expense of growth and challenge.

There’s also concern that the commercialization of kos (similar to what has happened with Danish hygge) could detract from its authentic meaning.

Additionally, for newcomers to Norway, the emphasis on kos in social situations can sometimes feel exclusive if they’re not familiar with the concept or its associated practices.

The Future of Kos

As Norwegian society evolves and becomes more diverse, the concept of kos is also adapting. While maintaining its core elements, it’s becoming more inclusive, incorporating new traditions and ways of creating comfort and connection.

The global interest in Nordic lifestyle concepts has also put kos in the spotlight, leading to a renewed appreciation and examination of this tradition among Norwegians themselves.

In an increasingly fast-paced, digital world, the principles of kos – slowing down, connecting with others, and finding joy in simple pleasures – remain more relevant than ever, offering a valuable antidote to the stresses of modern life.

4. Janteloven: The Law of Jante

Understanding Janteloven

Janteloven, or the Law of Jante, is not a legal code but a cultural concept that emphasizes collective well-being over individual success. It promotes humility, equality, and discourages boasting or standing out from the crowd. While not unique to Norway (it’s also found in other Nordic countries), it has a significant influence on Norwegian social norms and behavior.

The concept of Janteloven reflects a deeply ingrained egalitarian ethos in Norwegian society. It emphasizes the importance of the community over the individual and discourages any behavior that might be seen as claiming superiority or special status.

The Origins of Janteloven

The term comes from the novel “En flyktning krysser sitt spor” (A Fugitive Crosses His Tracks) by Danish-Norwegian author Aksel Sandemose, published in 1933. The book described a fictional small Danish town called Jante, where these unwritten rules governed social behavior.

Sandemose didn’t invent these rules but rather codified a set of social norms that he observed in small-town Scandinavian society. These norms had deep roots in the region’s history, reflecting values that had developed over centuries in relatively small, interdependent communities

The Ten Rules of Jante

Sandemose articulated Janteloven as a set of ten rules:

  1. You’re not to think you are anything special.
  2. You’re not to think you are as good as we are.
  3. You’re not to think you are smarter than we are.
  4. You’re not to imagine yourself better than we are.
  5. You’re not to think you know more than we do.
  6. You’re not to think you are more important than we are.
  7. You’re not to think you are good at anything.
  8. You’re not to laugh at us.
  9. You’re not to think anyone cares about you.
  10. You’re not to think you can teach us anything.

These rules, while seemingly harsh, are not meant to be taken literally. Instead, they represent a cultural tendency towards modesty, collective thinking, and egalitarianism.

Impact on Norwegian Society

While these rules might seem negative, they reflect a deeply egalitarian society that values modesty and community over individual achievement. This mindset has shaped various aspects of Norwegian society:

  1. Workplace Culture: Norwegian workplaces often have flatter hierarchies compared to many other countries. There’s typically less emphasis on titles and more on collaborative decision-making. Managers are often seen as facilitators rather than autocratic leaders.
  2. Education System: The Norwegian education system focuses more on cooperation than competition. There’s less emphasis on singling out high achievers and more on ensuring that all students receive quality education. Grading often starts later than in other countries to avoid early competition.
  3. Social Interactions: In social settings, Norwegians often underplay their achievements. Boasting about one’s successes or possessions is generally frowned upon. Conversations tend to be more about finding common ground than highlighting individual differences or accomplishments.
  4. Economic Policies: Norway’s strong welfare state and high taxes reflect the Janteloven principle of collective well-being over individual wealth accumulation. There’s a general acceptance of high taxes as a means of ensuring societal equality.
  5. Leadership Style: Norwegian leaders, whether in politics or business, often adopt a more understated style. Flashy displays of wealth or power are generally not well-received.
  6. Conflict Resolution: The Janteloven mindset encourages finding consensus and avoiding confrontation. This can be seen in Norway’s approach to international diplomacy and internal conflict resolution.

Criticisms and Evolution of Janteloven

In recent years, there has been growing criticism of Janteloven, with some arguing that it stifles creativity and individual ambition. Critics contend that in a globalized world, this mindset might put Norwegians at a disadvantage in international competition.

Some of the main criticisms include:

  1. Suppression of Excellence: There’s concern that Janteloven discourages the pursuit of excellence and the celebration of exceptional achievements.
  2. Resistance to Change: The emphasis on conformity can sometimes lead to resistance to new ideas or ways of doing things.
  3. Impact on Innovation: Some argue that the fear of standing out might inhibit entrepreneurship and innovation.
  4. Psychological Impact: The constant pressure to not think highly of oneself can potentially lead to issues with self-esteem and self-worth.

As Norway becomes more globalized, there’s a gradual shift towards celebrating individual achievements while still maintaining the core values of equality and community. This evolution is particularly noticeable among younger generations and in urban areas.

Janteloven in Modern Norway

While Janteloven still influences Norwegian society, its interpretation and application are evolving:

  1. Balanced Approach: Many Norwegians now strive for a balance between individual achievement and community mindedness.
  2. Reinterpretation: Some are reinterpreting Janteloven as a call for humility and consideration rather than a suppression of individual potential.
  3. International Influence: Exposure to other cultures through travel, media, and immigration is leading to more diverse perspectives on individual expression.
  4. Sector Variations: Certain sectors, particularly in technology and entrepreneurship, are seeing a greater emphasis on individual innovation and achievement.
  5. Generational Differences: Younger generations often have a more relaxed attitude towards Janteloven, while still appreciating its underlying values of equality and community.

Janteloven and Foreigners

For foreigners in Norway, understanding Janteloven can be crucial for social and professional integration. It explains many subtle aspects of Norwegian behavior that might otherwise be confusing or frustrating.

However, Norwegians generally don’t expect foreigners to fully adhere to Janteloven. There’s often an understanding that people from other cultures might have different ways of expressing themselves.

5. Matpakke: The Art of the Packed Lunch

What is Matpakke?

“Matpakke” (pronounced “maht-pak-ke”) literally translates to “food pack” and refers to the traditional Norwegian packed lunch. More than just a meal, matpakke is a cultural institution that reflects Norwegian values of simplicity, practicality, and frugality.

The matpakke tradition is deeply ingrained in Norwegian daily life, from school children to working adults. It’s not just about nutrition; it’s a reflection of Norwegian cultural values and a practical approach to everyday living.

The Composition of a Traditional Matpakke

A typical matpakke consists of:

  1. Open-faced sandwiches (smørbrød) on dark bread, usually whole grain or rye
  2. Simple toppings like cheese, cold cuts, or leverpostei (liver pate)
  3. Vegetables such as cucumber or bell pepper slices
  4. Sometimes a piece of fruit or a small sweet like a Kvikk Lunsj (similar to a Kit Kat)
  5. Wrapped in greaseproof paper or packed in a small box

The key characteristic of matpakke is its simplicity. Unlike elaborate packed lunches in some cultures, the traditional Norwegian matpakke is basic and functional.

The Cultural Significance of Matpakke

  1. Equality: The simplicity of matpakke reflects Norway’s egalitarian values. Whether you’re a CEO or a factory worker, chances are you’re eating a similar lunch.
  2. Practicality: Matpakke is easy to prepare, transport, and eat. It doesn’t require reheating or special storage, making it ideal for Norway’s active lifestyle.
  3. Health: Generally a balanced, nutritious meal, matpakke aligns with Norway’s focus on healthy living.
  4. Frugality: Bringing a homemade lunch saves money compared to buying lunch out, reflecting Norwegian values of financial prudence.
  5. Routine: The consistency of matpakke provides structure and routine in daily life, which many Norwegians appreciate.
  6. Sustainability: Homemade lunches often produce less waste than purchased meals, aligning with Norway’s environmental consciousness.

Matpakke in Different Settings

  • Schools: Children learn to make their own matpakke from a young age, fostering independence and responsibility.
  • Workplaces: Many adults continue the tradition at work. It’s common to see colleagues eating their matpakke together in office canteens.
  • Outdoor Activities: Matpakke is a staple for hikes and other friluftsliv activities. Its portability makes it ideal for outdoor adventures.
  • Social Gatherings: Even at some social events, people might bring their own matpakke to share, creating a communal dining experience.

Evolution of Matpakke

While the traditional matpakke remains popular, there’s a growing trend towards more varied and elaborate packed lunches, especially among younger generations. Some changes include:

  1. Diverse Ingredients: Influenced by global cuisines, some people are incorporating more varied ingredients into their matpakke.
  2. Healthier Options: With increasing health consciousness, there’s a trend towards including more vegetables, seeds, and whole grains.
  3. Eco-friendly Packaging: Many are moving away from disposable wrappings to reusable containers, reflecting environmental concerns.
  4. Gourmet Versions: In some urban areas, “luxury” matpakke with premium ingredients has become a trend.
  5. Hot Food Options: Thermos flasks with soups or hot dishes are becoming more common, especially in colder months.

However, despite these changes, the core principles of simplicity and practicality often remain. Many Norwegians still appreciate the no-fuss approach of the traditional matpakke.


These five customs – dugnad, friluftsliv, kos, janteloven, and matpakke – offer a window into the heart of Norwegian culture. They reflect core Norwegian values such as community cooperation, love for nature, appreciation of coziness and simple pleasures, egalitarianism, and practicality.

Understanding these customs can greatly enhance your appreciation of Norwegian culture, whether you’re learning the language, planning a visit, or simply interested in Nordic life. They provide insights into why Norway consistently ranks among the happiest countries in the world and how Norwegian society balances individual needs with collective well-being.

If you’re inspired to learn more about Norwegian culture and language, consider enrolling in group Norwegian classes at the NLS Norwegian Language School. You can find registration details and more information at These classes can provide a deeper understanding of the customs we’ve explored and help you navigate Norwegian society with greater ease and cultural awareness.

As with any culture, it’s important to remember that these customs are generalizations, and individual Norwegians may relate to them differently. Norway is also a changing society, influenced by globalization and immigration, leading to evolving interpretations of these traditional customs.

By embracing these customs, you’ll not only gain a deeper understanding of Norwegian culture but also potentially enrich your own life with their underlying wisdom. From the community spirit of dugnad to the nature-loving philosophy of friluftsliv, the cozy comfort of kos, the egalitarian mindset of janteloven, and the practical simplicity of matpakke, each custom offers valuable lessons that extend far beyond Norway’s borders.

If you want to learn Norwegian, you can register for classes here. We look forward to hearing from you and helping you become fluent in Norwegian.

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